Timeline: The Nuclear Age

 作者:段干甓     |      日期:2019-03-02 07:17:03
By John Pickrell E = mc2, Albert Einstein establishes equivalence of mass and energy Ernest Rutherford probes the structure of the atom James Chadwick discovers neutrons Enrico Fermi nearly discovers nuclear fission while bombarding uranium with neutrons. The sample was wrapped in aluminium foil, preventing him from detecting the splitting of the atom Manhattan Project begins at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, US Manhattan Project achieves first controlled nuclear fission reaction in a basement in Chicago, US 16 July – first atomic bomb is tested in Los Alamos 6 August – US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan 9 August – US drops another atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan Soviet Union (USSR) tests its first atomic bomb The world’s first hydrogen bomb is tested by the US on a remote Pacific Ocean atoll. The nuclear fusion device is 500 times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima or Nagasaki The United Kingdom detonates its first atomic bomb US launches first nuclear-powered submarine The first nuclear reactor to provide electricity to a national grid opens in Calder Hall, England United Nations establishes the International Atomic Energy Agency, its nuclear watchdog US operationally deploys first intercontinental ballistic missile France tests its first nuclear bomb China tests its first nuclear bomb Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is signed India detonates a “non-weapon” nuclear explosion underground Israel and South Africa suspected of jointly testing a nuclear bomb A cooling problem causes the meltdown of the Three Mile Island nuclear reactor in Pennsylvania, US Last known atmospheric nuclear test is conducted by China The reactor meltdown and explosion at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in the USSR (now Ukraine) becomes the worst nuclear accident in history The Cold War, which started after World War Two, ends with the collapse of the USSR. Disarmament accords follow during the 1990s, ending the US-Soviet nuclear arms race India conducts five nuclear weapons tests and Pakistan conducts six US Senate rejects Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 70 people are exposed to radiation in the Tokaimura nuclear facility in Japan North Korea claims it has a nuclear weapons programme North Korea withdraws from Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Libya ends its nuclear weapons programme Pakistani nuclear scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan is exposed as supplying a global black-market in nuclear technology Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty review meeting in May ends with no agreement Adapted from New Scientist print edition, 16 July 2005 More on these topics: